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New Guinea is the second largest island in the world. The western half of New Guinea is part of Indonesia. The Indonesian half of the island was formerly called "Irian Jaya".
There are two main coffee-growing areas in Papua. The first is the Baliem Valley, in the central highlands of the Jayawijaya region, surrounding the town of Wamena.
The second is the Kamu Valley in the Nabire Region, at the eastern edge of the central highlands, surrounding the town of Moanemani.
Both areas lie at altitudes between 1, and meters, creating ideal conditions for Arabica production. Together, these areas produce about tons of coffee per year.
This is set to rise, as new companies are setting up buying and processing operations. These companies are assisting farmers to obtain organic and fair trade certification , which will significantly improve incomes.
The area is extremely remote, with most coffee-growing areas inaccessible by road and nearly untouched by the modern world.
All coffee is shade grown under Calliandra , Erythrina and Albizia trees. Farmers in Papua use a wet hulled process.
Chemical fertilizer pesticide and herbicide are unknown in this origin, which makes this coffee both rare and valuable. All arabica coffee in Indonesia is picked by hand, whether it is grown by smallholders or on medium-sized estates.
After harvest, the coffee is processed in a variety of ways, each imparting its own flavours and aromas to the final product. A small number of Arabica farmers in Sulawesi, Flores and Bali, and almost all Robusta farmers across Indonesia, use the most traditional method of all, dry processing.
The coffee cherries are dried in the sun, and then de-hulled in a dry state. Most farmers on Sulawesi, Sumatra, Flores, and Papua use the "giling basah" or wet hulling process.
In this technique, farmers remove the outer skin from the cherries mechanically, using rustic pulping machines, called "luwak". The coffee beans, still coated with mucilage, are then stored for up to a day.
Following this waiting period, the mucilage is washed off and the coffee is partially dried for sale. At least one U. Collectors and processors then hull the coffee in a semi-wet state, which gives the beans a distinctive bluish-green appearance.
This process reduces acidity and increases body, resulting in the classic Indonesian cup profile. Larger processing mills, estates and some farmers' cooperatives on Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Bali produce "fully washed" coffee.
The most unusual form of coffee processing in Indonesia is " kopi luwak ". This coffee is processed by the Asian palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus.
The animals eat ripe coffee cherries and their digestive process removes the outer layers of the fruit. The remaining coffee beans are collected and washed.
Coffee experts [ who? This results in a smooth, mild cup, with a sweet after-taste. This trap is designed to catch the coffee berry borer CBB insect, a major pest in coffee.
Brocap traps have been extensively adopted by coffee farmers in Central America. Indonesia's coffee industry is represented by three associations.
AICE was founded in and was responsible for managing export quotas under the International Coffee Agreements up until SCAI members focus exclusively on the production, export and marketing of Indonesia's arabica coffees.
This includes farmers' cooperatives with 8, members, exporters, roasters, importers and coffee retailers in the Arabic coffee industry. The Indonesian coffee sector is large, internally diverse and scattered.
Production is dominated by an estimated 2 million smallholders living in often remote villages located right across the archipelago—with different coffee regions showing variations in terms of production systems, environmental conditions, product quality, post-harvest processing, and value chain structures.
This distinctive geography poses challenges for logistics, for supporting improved technologies, and for developing cohesive industry organizations.
Common to most of the coffee-producing regions are circumstances of low yields, weak farmer organization, and limited government support—as coffee has hitherto not been regarded as a crop of strategic importance.
The protected park is home to endangered tigers , elephants and rhinos , and WWF predicts that these species will be extinct in a decade should the clearing and farming continue.
Coffea robusta is grown at lower altitudes than Coffea arabica. Robusta is grown on small farms that average one hectare.
The crop is harvested by stripping off all the fruit on the branch, resulting in a mix of ripe and green cherries. During the s, the Dutch introduced coffee to Southeast Asia.
The Dutch were likely the first to use the name, and they may have used it to refer to single-origin coffee from Java. As the coffee trade grew, though, the term was adopted by more and more people throughout the world, and any specificity was lost.
In the s, coffee leaf rust decimated many of the trees on the island, and producers responded by substituting arabica lots with liberica and then robusta ones.
Thus, the coffees produced by these trees are usually used in lower-quality, commercial-grade coffees, not in specialty-grade coffees. Five plantations, however, still grow coffea arabica and have decent processing facilities.
These plantations produce good coffee that meets the standards of specialty-grade coffee. The higher-quality coffees that come from these plantations are often used in two distinctive ways:.
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